PASSIO (8.555860)

NAXOS 8.555860


full title: Passio Domini Nostri Jesu Christi secundum Joannem

(The Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ according to John)

composed: Arvo Pärt, 1982

published: Universal Edition, Vienna (UE 17568)



CD (track divisions are for listening convenience):

track 1  Jesus is betrayed and arrested in Gethsemane (exordium; John 18:1-12)

“Passio Domini nostri Jesu Christi secundum Joannem.... ligaverunt eum:”



track 2  Jesus is interrogated by the high priest and denied by Peter (John 18:13-27)

“Et adduxerunt eum ad Annam primum... statim gallus cantavit.”



track 3  Jesus is judged by Pilate and reviled by the people (John 18:28-19:15)

“Adducunt ergo Jesum a Caipha in praetorium... ...Non habemus Regem, nisi Caesarem.”



track 4  Jesus is crucified at Golgotha (John 19:16-30; conclusio)

“Tunc ergo tradidit eis illum ut crucifigeretur... ...Qui passus es pro nobis, miserere nobis.  Amen.”


total timing: 61'45"




Robert Macdonald – bass (Jesus)

Mark Anderson – tenor (Pilate)

Joanna Forbes – soprano
Rebecca Hickey – soprano (Evangelist Quartet)
Kathryn Oswald – alto (Evangelist Quartet)
Alexander L’Estrange – countertenor
Benjamin Rayfield – tenor (Evangelist Quartet)
Alexander Hickey – tenor
Francis Brett – bass (Evangelist Quartet)
Nick Flower – bass
Elizabeth Hodson – violin

Geoffrey Coates – oboe
Augusta Harris – cello
Gwyn Parry-Jones – bassoon
Paul Ayres – organ

Antony Pitts – director


24-bit recording made 15-18 May & 28 June 2001

in the Abbey Church of St Peter & St Paul, Dorchester-on-Thames, UK

engineered by Geoff Miles
produced by Jeremy Summerly & Alexander L’Estrange 

edited by Antony Pitts


Arvo Pärt was born near Tallinn in Estonia in 1935.  His childhood was stamped with the Soviet occupation of Estonia - an occupation that lasted for half a century until the mid-1990s.  From an early age, Pärt turned his attention to exploring the world of music, first by improvising on the piano, and, as a teenager, by listening to the radio.  This passion for the radio later led to a job as a recording engineer for Estonian Radio and brought him into contact with as much new music as was allowed in an era of ideological control.  Pärt became the first Estonian composer to use Schoenberg’s 12-tone technique - in Nekrolog (1960/1961), an orchestral piece which he wrote while still a student at Tallinn Conservatory.  This piece attracted strong official disapproval for its connection with the music of the decadent West, but not enough to prevent Pärt from being one of the winners of a USSR-wide competition for young composers in 1962. 


Throughout the 1960s, Pärt continued trying to make sense of the Western musical canon and his own place in it.  J.S.Bach and Tchaikovsky are the respective focal points in Collage on the theme B-A-C-H and his Second Symphony, while Credo (1968) is a nightmare metamorphosis of Bach’s C major Prelude (from Book I of the ‘48’).  The music of Credo is shocking enough, but what landed the composer in trouble this time was the blatant declaration of Christian faith: “I believe in Jesus Christ”.  The piece was banned across the Soviet Union.


Retreating from such hostility, Pärt spent time re-examining the music of the Renaissance and the Middle Ages, and in 1971 wrote a Third Symphony in which these influences surface from time to time.  For several years afterwards he produced almost no scores except music for films (which had always been part of his professional musical life).  Away from public attention he immersed himself in plainchant (or ‘Gregorian’ chant) and contemplated the absolute basics of musical language. 


Pärt began to understand afresh the vast sonic possibilities within a single note, and the importance and omnipresence of the simple triad (a chord of three notes).  These two discoveries were first made public in the tiny piano piece For Alina (1976) - where one voice moves by step from and to a central note, first up then down, and the other voice articulates the three notes of a triad.  Pärt formalised this principle and gave it the name of tintinnabuli:


Tintinnabuli is the mathematically exact connection from one line to another.....tintinnabuli is the rule where the melody and the accompaniment [accompanying voice] one.  One plus one, it is one - it is not two.  This is the secret of this technique.“


In 1980 the Pärt family emigrated from Estonia and after a short time in Vienna settled in Berlin.  Soon after emigrating, Arvo Pärt wrote his setting of the St John Passion using the tintinnabuli principle, and since then he has concentrated mainly on sacred vocal works including the Seven Magnificat Antiphons (1988), the Miserere (1989), The Beatitudes (1990) and the Litany (1994).


For each new piece of music, Pärt devises a set of laws from which every pitch and every duration, and even the structure of the piece will naturally unfold.  He compares this with the work of the original Creator: “my focus is what was ‘before’ the Big Bang...where God had created the formula”.  In Pärt’s vocal music it is the text which provides both the emotional framework and a set of values (syllables, words, sentences) to be processed using this set of laws or formula.  He considers the text to be “more important than the music” because “the text is stronger and it has given food for hundreds and thousands of composers, and it will continue so.” 


In order to devise the formula, Pärt tries “to find what is behind every word”; he is keenly aware of “how rich the words are and how rich the words that are not so is like people - if we look on the crowd, there is a king, there is a lord, there is a very poor man, there is a normal student.....the result is every time unexpected.”  But formula does not mean formulaic - Pärt shapes and re-shapes the set of laws until they are exactly right for the particular piece and its text: “during the writing I come several times back to the very beginning idea and I can rewrite.....the formula shorter and clear.....if I have found it, then I can leave the free walk for music after the rules of this formula, because nothing can happen wrong then.”


Settings of the Passion are part of an ancient tradition within the Church in which all four Gospel accounts of the Passion are sung to plainchant in Holy Week.  Over the centuries the three main elements of the story were separated out onto different reciting tones, and later given to different singers: a priest to sing the words of Jesus, a deacon the main narrative, and a sub-deacon the words of other minor characters including the crowd, Pilate and Peter.  One of the earliest surviving Passion settings with polyphonic music for the crowd and minor characters is the late mediaeval anonymous St Luke Passion in an English manuscript, Egerton 3307 (recorded by Tonus Peregrinus on Naxos 8.555861).  By the time of J.S.Bach, the Passion setting had developed into a much more elaborate sequence of solo recitative and arias, chorales and choruses, all characterised according to their emotional function, and set in the local tongue. 


In his setting, Arvo Pärt eschews all such word-painting and mood-setting, and instead returns to the neutrality of the Latin translation, with each part allocated a certain constant set of notes and durations throughout.  Even the silences between sections have a precise duration specified by the number of syllables in the final word of the preceding sentence, and this is the first recording of Passio to take account of the composer’s recent clarification of that particular rule.


The main narrative in Passio is given to an Evangelist Quartet, accompanied by violin, oboe, cello and bassoon, whose music centres around the note A.  Jesus’s words are set at a slower pace and sung by a bass continuously mirrored by the organ.  Pilate is sung by a tenor, and his vocal part and organ accompaniment vacillate between an F and a B (exactly half an octave apart - the ambivalent tritone).  All the other characters, including the crowd, are sung by the choir to music based around a triad of E major.  Framing the biblical text are the opening title “Passio Domini Nostri Jesu Christi secundum Joannem” and a final prayer in glorious D major: “Qui passus es pro nobis, miserere nobis.  Amen.” – “You who have suffered for us, have mercy upon us.  Amen.


Despite the exactitude and apparent simplicity with which the notes are pre-determined by the composer, it is a testament to the power and refinement of the tintinnabuli principle that the text speaks through: a clear example of this is “crucifigeretur”, the word with the greatest number of syllables in the entire text of the Passion.  The singer’s melody moves - according to the formula - further from its home note than any other, which proves painfully apt as Jesus is handed over to be crucified.


Antony Pitts

© 2002


Quotations taken from a conversation between Arvo Pärt and Antony Pitts recorded for BBC Radio 3 at the Royal Academy of Music in London on 29 March 2000.


John 18

1 Haec cum dixisset Iesus, egressus est cum discipulis suis trans torrentem Cedron, ubi erat hortus, in quem introivit ipse et discipuli eius.

2 Sciebat autem et Iudas, qui tradebat eum, locum, quia frequenter Iesus convenerat illuc cum discipulis suis.

3 Iudas ergo, cum accepisset cohortem et a pontificibus et pharisaeis ministros, venit illuc cum lanternis et facibus et armis.

4 Iesus itaque sciens omnia, quae ventura erant super eum, processit et dicit eis: “Quem quaeritis?”.

5 Responderunt ei: “Iesum Nazarenum”. Dicit eis: “Ego sum!”. Stabat autem et Iudas, qui tradebat eum, cum ipsis.

6 Ut ergo dixit eis: “Ego sum!”, abierunt retrorsum et ceciderunt in terram.

7 Iterum ergo eos interrogavit: “Quem quaeritis?”. Illi autem dixerunt: “Iesum Nazarenum”.

8 Respondit Iesus: “Dixi vobis: Ego sum! Si ergo me quaeritis, sinite hos abire”,

9 ut impleretur sermo, quem dixit: “Quos dedisti mihi, non perdidi ex ipsis quemquam”.

10 Simon ergo Petrus, habens gladium, eduxit eum et percussit pontificis servum et abscidit eius auriculam dextram. Erat autem nomen servo Malchus.

11 Dixit ergo Iesus Petro: “Mitte gladium in vaginam; calicem, quem dedit mihi Pater, non bibam illum?”.

12 Cohors ergo et tribunus et ministri Iudaeorum comprehenderunt Iesum et ligaverunt eum

13 et adduxerunt ad Annam primum; erat enim socer Caiphae, qui erat pontifex anni illius.

14 Erat autem Caiphas, qui consilium dederat Iudaeis: “Expedit unum hominem mori pro populo”.

15 Sequebatur autem Iesum Simon Petrus et alius discipulus. Discipulus autem ille erat notus pontifici et introivit cum Iesu in atrium pontificis;

16 Petrus autem stabat ad ostium foris. Exivit ergo discipulus alius, qui erat notus pontifici, et dixit ostiariae et introduxit Petrum.

17 Dicit ergo Petro ancilla ostiaria: “Numquid et tu ex discipulis es hominis istius?”. Dicit ille: “Non sum!”.

18 Stabant autem servi et ministri, qui prunas fecerant, quia frigus erat, et calefaciebant se; erat autem cum eis et Petrus stans et calefaciens se.

19 Pontifex ergo interrogavit Iesum de discipulis suis et de doctrina eius.

20 Respondit ei Iesus: “Ego palam locutus sum mundo; ego semper docui in synagoga et in templo, quo omnes Iudaei conveniunt, et in occulto locutus sum nihil.

21 Quid me interrogas? Interroga eos, qui audierunt quid locutus sum ipsis; ecce hi sciunt, quae dixerim ego”.

22 Haec autem cum dixisset, unus assistens ministrorum dedit alapam Iesu dicens: “Sic respondes pontifici?”.

23 Respondit ei Iesus: “Si male locutus sum, testimonium perhibe de malo; si autem bene, quid me caedis?”.

24 Misit ergo eum Annas ligatum ad Caipham pontificem.

25 Erat autem Simon Petrus stans et calefaciens se. Dixerunt ergo ei: “Numquid et tu ex discipulis eius es?”. Negavit ille et dixit: “Non sum!”.

26 Dicit unus ex servis pontificis, cognatus eius, cuius abscidit Petrus auriculam: “Nonne ego te vidi in horto cum illo?”.

27 Iterum ergo negavit Petrus; et statim gallus cantavit.

28 Adducunt ergo Iesum a Caipha in praetorium. Erat autem mane. Et ipsi non introierunt in praetorium, ut non contaminarentur, sed manducarent Pascha.

29 Exivit ergo Pilatus ad eos foras et dicit: “Quam accusationem affertis adversus hominem hunc?”.

30 Responderunt et dixerunt ei: “Si non esset hic malefactor, non tibi tradidissemus eum”.

31 Dixit ergo eis Pilatus: “Accipite eum vos et secundum legem vestram iudicate eum!”. Dixerunt ei Iudaei: “Nobis non licet interficere quemquam”,

32 ut sermo Iesu impleretur, quem dixit, significans qua esset morte moriturus.

33 Introivit ergo iterum in praetorium Pilatus et vocavit Iesum et dixit ei: “Tu es rex Iudaeorum?”.

34 Respondit Iesus: “A temetipso tu hoc dicis, an alii tibi dixerunt de me?”.

35 Respondit Pilatus: “Numquid ego Iudaeus sum? Gens tua et pontifices tradiderunt te mihi; quid fecisti?”.

36 Respondit Iesus: “Regnum meum non est de mundo hoc; si ex hoc mundo esset regnum meum, ministri mei decertarent, ut non traderer Iudaeis; nunc autem meum regnum non est hinc”.

37 Dixit itaque ei Pilatus: “Ergo rex es tu?”. Respondit Iesus: “Tu dicis quia rex sum. Ego in hoc natus sum et ad hoc veni in mundum, ut testimonium perhibeam veritati; omnis, qui est ex veritate, audit meam vocem”.

38 Dicit ei Pilatus: “Quid est veritas?”. Et cum hoc dixisset, iterum exivit ad Iudaeos et dicit eis: “Ego nullam invenio in eo causam.

39 Est autem consuetudo vobis, ut unum dimittam vobis in Pascha; vultis ergo dimittam vobis regem Iudaeorum?”.

40 Clamaverunt ergo rursum dicentes: “Non hunc sed Barabbam!”. Erat autem Barabbas latro.

John 19

1 Tunc ergo apprehendit Pilatus Iesum et flagellavit.

2 Et milites, plectentes coronam de spinis, imposuerunt capiti eius et veste purpurea circumdederunt eum;

3 et veniebant ad eum et dicebant: “Ave, rex Iudaeorum!”, et dabant ei alapas.

4 Et exiit iterum Pilatus foras et dicit eis: “Ecce adduco vobis eum foras, ut cognoscatis quia in eo invenio causam nullam”.

5 Exiit ergo Iesus foras, portans spineam coronam et purpureum vestimentum. Et dicit eis: “Ecce homo!”.

6 Cum ergo vidissent eum pontifices et ministri, clamaverunt dicentes: “Crucifige, crucifige!”. Dicit eis Pilatus: “Accipite eum vos et crucifigite; ego enim non invenio in eo causam”.

7 Responderunt ei Iudaei: “Nos legem habemus, et secundum legem debet mori, quia Filium Dei se fecit”.

8 Cum ergo audisset Pilatus hunc sermonem, magis timuit

9 et ingressus est praetorium iterum et dicit ad Iesum: “Unde es tu?”. Iesus autem responsum non dedit ei.

10 Dicit ergo ei Pilatus: “Mihi non loqueris? Nescis quia potestatem habeo dimittere te et potestatem habeo crucifigere te?”.

11 Respondit Iesus: “Non haberes potestatem adversum me ullam, nisi tibi esset datum desuper; propterea, qui tradidit me tibi, maius peccatum habet”.

12 Exinde quaerebat Pilatus dimittere eum; Iudaei autem clamabant dicentes: “Si hunc dimittis, non es amicus Caesaris! Omnis, qui se regem facit, contradicit Caesari”.

13 Pilatus ergo, cum audisset hos sermones, adduxit foras Iesum et sedit pro tribunali in locum, qui dicitur Lithostrotos, Hebraice autem Gabbatha.

14 Erat autem Parasceve Paschae, hora erat quasi sexta. Et dicit Iudaeis: “Ecce rex vester!”.

15 Clamaverunt ergo illi: “Tolle, tolle, crucifige eum!”. Dicit eis Pilatus: “Regem vestrum crucifigam?”. Responderunt pontifices: “Non habemus regem, nisi Caesarem”.

16 Tunc ergo tradidit eis illum, ut crucifigeretur. Susceperunt ergo Iesum.

17 Et baiulans sibi crucem exivit in eum, qui dicitur Calvariae locum, quod Hebraice dicitur Golgotha,

18 ubi eum crucifixerunt et cum eo alios duos hinc et hinc, medium autem Iesum.

19 Scripsit autem et titulum Pilatus et posuit super crucem; erat autem scriptum: “Iesus Nazarenus Rex Iudaeorum”.

20 Hunc ergo titulum multi legerunt Iudaeorum, quia prope civitatem erat locus, ubi crucifixus est Iesus; et erat scriptum Hebraice, Latine, Graece.

21 Dicebant ergo Pilato pontifices Iudaeorum: “Noli scribere: Rex Iudaeorum, sed: Ipse dixit: “Rex sum Iudaeorum”.

22 Respondit Pilatus: “Quod scripsi, scripsi!”.

23 Milites ergo cum crucifixissent Iesum, acceperunt vestimenta eius et fecerunt quattuor partes, unicuique militi partem, et tunicam. Erat autem tunica inconsutilis, desuper contexta per totum.

24 Dixerunt ergo ad invicem: “Non scindamus eam, sed sortiamur de illa, cuius sit”, ut Scriptura impleatur dicens: “Partiti sunt vestimenta mea sibiet in vestem meam miserunt sortem”. Et milites quidem haec fecerunt.

25 Stabant autem iuxta crucem Iesu mater eius et soror matris eius, Maria Cleopae, et Maria Magdalene.

26 Cum vidisset ergo Iesus matrem et discipulum stantem, quem diligebat, dicit matri: “Mulier, ecce filius tuus”.

27 Deinde dicit discipulo: “Ecce mater tua”. Et ex illa hora accepit eam discipulus in sua.

28 Post hoc sciens Iesus quia iam omnia consummata sunt, ut consummaretur Scriptura, dicit: “Sitio”.

29 Vas positum erat aceto plenum; spongiam ergo plenam aceto hyssopo circumponentes, obtulerunt ori eius.

30 Cum ergo accepisset acetum, Iesus dixit: “Consummatum est!”. Et inclinato capite tradidit spiritum.

(New Vulgate)



John 18

1 When Jesus had spoken these words, he went forth with his disciples over the brook Cedron, where was a garden, into the which he entered, and his disciples.

2 And Judas also, which betrayed him, knew the place: for Jesus ofttimes resorted thither with his disciples.

3 Judas then, having received a band [of men] and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns and torches and weapons.

4 Jesus therefore, knowing all things that should come upon him, went forth, and said unto them, Whom seek ye?

5 They answered him, Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus saith unto them, I am [he]. And Judas also, which betrayed him, stood with them.

6 As soon then as he had said unto them, I am [he], they went backward, and fell to the ground.

7 Then asked he them again, Whom seek ye? And they said, Jesus of Nazareth.

8 Jesus answered, I have told you that I am [he]: if therefore ye seek me, let these go their way:

9 That the saying might be fulfilled, which he spake, Of them which thou gavest me have I lost none.

10 Then Simon Peter having a sword drew it, and smote the high priest’s servant, and cut off his right ear. The servant’s name was Malchus.

11 Then said Jesus unto Peter, Put up thy sword into the sheath: the cup which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it?

12 Then the band and the captain and officers of the Jews took Jesus, and bound him,

13 And led him away to Annas first; for he was father in law to Caiaphas, which was the high priest that same year.

14 Now Caiaphas was he, which gave counsel to the Jews, that it was expedient that one man should die for the people.

15 And Simon Peter followed Jesus, and [so did] another disciple: that disciple was known unto the high priest, and went in with Jesus into the palace of the high priest.

16 But Peter stood at the door without. Then went out that other disciple, which was known unto the high priest, and spake unto her that kept the door, and brought in Peter.

17 Then saith the damsel that kept the door unto Peter, Art not thou also [one] of this man’s disciples? He saith, I am not.

18 And the servants and officers stood there, who had made a fire of coals; for it was cold: and they warmed themselves: and Peter stood with them, and warmed himself.

19 The high priest then asked Jesus of his disciples, and of his doctrine.

20 Jesus answered him, I spake openly to the world; I ever taught in the synagogue, and in the temple, whither the Jews always resort; and in secret have I said nothing.

21 Why askest thou me? ask them which heard me, what I have said unto them: behold, they know what I said.

22 And when he had thus spoken, one of the officers which stood by struck Jesus with the palm of his hand, saying, Answerest thou the high priest so?

23 Jesus answered him, If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil: but if well, why smitest thou me?

24 Now Annas had sent him bound unto Caiaphas the high priest.

25 And Simon Peter stood and warmed himself. They said therefore unto him, Art not thou also [one] of his disciples? He denied [it], and said, I am not.

26 One of the servants of the high priest, being [his] kinsman whose ear Peter cut off, saith, Did not I see thee in the garden with him?

27 Peter then denied again: and immediately the cock crew.

28 Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment: and it was early; and they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled; but that they might eat the passover.

29 Pilate then went out unto them, and said, What accusation bring ye against this man?

30 They answered and said unto him, If he were not a malefactor, we would not have delivered him up unto thee.

31 Then said Pilate unto them, Take ye him, and judge him according to your law. The Jews therefore said unto him, It is not lawful for us to put any man to death:

32 That the saying of Jesus might be fulfilled, which he spake, signifying what death he should die.

33 Then Pilate entered into the judgment hall again, and called Jesus, and said unto him, Art thou the King of the Jews?

34 Jesus answered him, Sayest thou this thing of thyself, or did others tell it thee of me?

35 Pilate answered, Am I a Jew? Thine own nation and the chief priests have delivered thee unto me: what hast thou done?

36 Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews: but now is my kingdom not from hence.

37 Pilate therefore said unto him, Art thou a king then? Jesus answered, Thou sayest that I am a king. To this end was I born, and for this cause came I into the world, that I should bear witness unto the truth. Every one that is of the truth heareth my voice.

38 Pilate saith unto him, What is truth? And when he had said this, he went out again unto the Jews, and saith unto them, I find in him no fault [at all].

39 But ye have a custom, that I should release unto you one at the passover: will ye therefore that I release unto you the King of the Jews?

40 Then cried they all again, saying, Not this man, but Barabbas. Now Barabbas was a robber.

John 19

1 Then Pilate therefore took Jesus, and scourged [him].

2 And the soldiers platted a crown of thorns, and put [it] on his head, and they put on him a purple robe,

3 And said, Hail, King of the Jews! and they smote him with their hands.

4 Pilate therefore went forth again, and saith unto them, Behold, I bring him forth to you, that ye may know that I find no fault in him.

5 Then came Jesus forth, wearing the crown of thorns, and the purple robe. And [Pilate] saith unto them, Behold the man!

6 When the chief priests therefore and officers saw him, they cried out, saying, Crucify [him], crucify [him]. Pilate saith unto them, Take ye him, and crucify [him]: for I find no fault in him.

7 The Jews answered him, We have a law, and by our law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of God.

8 When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he was the more afraid;

9 And went again into the judgment hall, and saith unto Jesus, Whence art thou? But Jesus gave him no answer.

10 Then saith Pilate unto him, Speakest thou not unto me? knowest thou not that I have power to crucify thee, and have power to release thee?

11 Jesus answered, Thou couldest have no power [at all] against me, except it were given thee from above: therefore he that delivered me unto thee hath the greater sin.

12 And from thenceforth Pilate sought to release him: but the Jews cried out, saying, If thou let this man go, thou art not Caesar’s friend: whosoever maketh himself a king speaketh against Caesar.

13 When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he brought Jesus forth, and sat down in the judgment seat in a place that is called the Pavement, but in the Hebrew, Gabbatha.

14 And it was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour: and he saith unto the Jews, Behold your King!

15 But they cried out, Away with [him], away with [him], crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Shall I crucify your King? The chief priests answered, We have no king but Caesar.

16 Then delivered he him therefore unto them to be crucified. And they took Jesus, and led [him] away.

17 And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called [the place] of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew Golgotha:

18 Where they crucified him, and two other with him, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst.

19 And Pilate wrote a title, and put [it] on the cross. And the writing was, JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS.

20 This title then read many of the Jews: for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city: and it was written in Hebrew, [and] Greek, [and] Latin.

21 Then said the chief priests of the Jews to Pilate, Write not, The King of the Jews; but that he said, I am King of the Jews.

22 Pilate answered, What I have written I have written.

23 Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part; and also [his] coat: now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout.

24 They said therefore among themselves, Let us not rend it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be: that the scripture might be fulfilled, which saith, They parted my raiment among them, and for my vesture they did cast lots. These things therefore the soldiers did.

25 Now there stood by the cross of Jesus his mother, and his mother’s sister, Mary the [wife] of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene.

26 When Jesus therefore saw his mother, and the disciple standing by, whom he loved, he saith unto his mother, Woman, behold thy son!

27 Then saith he to the disciple, Behold thy mother! And from that hour that disciple took her unto his own [home].

28 After this, Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the scripture might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst.

29 Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar: and they filled a spunge with vinegar, and put [it] upon hyssop, and put [it] to his mouth.

30 When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost.

(King James Version)